Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex heterogeneous disease. Diagnostic criteria are based on symptoms, biomarkers, MRI data and exclusion of differential diagnoses. Over the past few years, the usefulness of biomarkers has progressively decreased with the development of new MRI criteria, yet dozens of new biomarkers, especially in cerebrospinal fluid, for MS diagnosis and prognosis have been described. Large-scale studies validating some of these new biomarkers have also provided confirmation of a restricted set of biomarkers (presented here in this review) as having potential value for different stages of the disease, including as early as clinically isolated syndrome and radiologically isolated syndrome. However, differentiating progressive forms of MS from relapsing–remitting MS remains a genuine challenge, and could help to predict future conversion to secondary-progressive MS. In addition, new approaches combining multiple biomarkers might allow us to unravel the complexity of the disease and determine disease stages more precisely. Moreover, recent technological developments allowing analysis of biomarkers in plasma have also provided less invasive analysis of MS, and should serve to predict MS evolution and therapeutic responses during follow-up.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Multiple sclerosis, Biomarkers, Cerebrospinal fluid, Diagnosis, OCB, Plasma