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This study reports the first occurrence of a varied xenacanth assemblage from the Upper Triassic Tiki Formation of India, based on multiple well-preserved isolated teeth. Based on distinct tooth morphology, two species of the genus Mooreodontus are described: M. indicus and a new species, M. jaini. The new species is diagnosed based on a tricuspid crown containing two stout, slightly diverging lateral cusps pointing in the same direction, a high median cusp, crown-base angle almost at 90°, large, rounded, apical button with several foramina and multiple, 8–9 coarse vertical cristae on all the cusps. Dental anomaly in the form of a partial quadri-cuspidate xenacanthid tooth is present in the collection. Another group of xenacanthid teeth have bicuspid crowns with two upright, asymmetric cusps, where the mesial cusp is thicker than the distal one, and consistently lack a median cusp. Such distinct bicuspid tooth morphology is usually present in Palaeozoic forms and is reported for the first time from the Late Triassic. It is considered to belong to a new taxon, Tikiodontus asymmetricus nov. gen., nov. sp., of indeterminate family. Distinctive tooth histology also differentiates the two Indian genera Mooreodontus and Tikiodontus nov. gen. from other xenacanthid taxa. In addition, the Tiki assemblage has yielded multiple chondrichthyan dermal denticles, which may be subdivided into two morphotypes based on their robustness and presence/absence of linear ridges on the fused cusps. India holds a unique position in terms of its Late Triassic freshwater shark fauna, as it exhibits distinct Laurasian affinities. These freshwater sharks had restricted occurrences in other parts of the Gondwanan landmass.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Xenacanthiformes, Mooreodontus, Tikiodontus nov. gen., Tooth histology, Carnian, Palaeobiogeography
|☆|| Corresponding editor: Gilles Escarguel.