Atypical motor neuron disease represents a rare heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with clinical, genetic and neuroimaging features distinct from those of the classic spinal or bulbar-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). O'Sullivan–McLeod syndrome represents an extremely rare lower motor neuronopathy with early adult-onset distal amyotrophy and weakness in the upper limbs with asymmetrical involvement. To add to the few case series and epidemiological and genetic studies describing this variant syndrome, our team here presents a series of seven unrelated Brazilian patients with O'Sullivan–McLeod syndrome in a detailed review of their clinical, neuroimaging, laboratory and neurophysiological findings. A male-to-female ratio of 2.5 to 1 and a mean age at onset of 34.3years was observed, with a mean time delay of 6.6years between symptom-onset and a definitive diagnosis. A positive family history was observed in one case, yet whole-exome sequencing results were negative. Neuroimaging studies were unremarkable. All cases presented with chronic denervation restricted to cervical myotomes and normal sensory nerve conduction studies. This case series, one of the largest groups of patients with O'Sullivan–McLeod syndrome reported in the literature, confirms the sporadic nature of the condition and the difficulties faced in arriving at a definite diagnosis, and also expands the age limit in late adult-onset cases.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Motor neuron disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Spinal muscular atrophy, O'Sullivan–McLeod syndrome, Neuronopathy
Abbreviations : ALS, MND, SMA