A 71-year-old Caucasian man living in Congo was investigated by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after having presented cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical picture was characterized initially by coma and seizures. The patient developed multiple organ failure. There was, at 4 months follow-up only, a minimal neurological improvement consistent with minimally conscious state. The first cerebral MRI on day 17 showed a lesion of the splenium of corpus callosum with high signal intensity on DWI and FLAIR sequence and reduced ADC, and small cortical infarcts in the internal occipital regions. Follow-up MRI obtained 36 days later showed a complete resolution of splenial lesion, though without clinical improvement. Cerebral malaria should be added to the list of possible causes of reversible lesion of the splenium of corpus callosum.
Keywords : Plasmodium falciparum, Cerebral malaria, Magnetic resonance imaging, Reversible splenial encephalopathy, Corpus callosum