Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has multiple etiologies. In the four disorders described in this review, the primary organ involved is the kidney. Drug-associated TMA can be an acute, immune-mediated disorder or the result of gradual, dose-dependent toxicity. TMA may occur in patients with advanced HIV infection, possibly mediated by angio-invasive infections. TMA following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may also be caused by drug toxicity; the pathogenesis may involve inhibition of vascular endothelial cell growth factor in renal podocytes. Malignancies of many types with systemic microvascular involvement may cause TMA. Recognition that these syndromes may mimic TTP is important to provide appropriate management and to avoid the inappropriate use of plasma exchange treatment.