Surgical treatment of early-onset scoliosis has greatly developed in recent years. Early-onset scoliosis covers a variety of etiologies (idiopathic, neurologic, dystrophic, malformative, etc.) with onset before the age of 5 years. Progression and severity threaten respiratory development and may result in respiratory failure in adulthood. Many surgical techniques have been developed in recent years, aiming to protect spinal and thoracic development.
Material and methods
Present techniques are based on one of two main principles. The first consists in posterior distraction of the spine in its concavity (single growing rod, or vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib [VEPTR]), or on either side (dual rod); this requires iterative surgery, for lengthening, unless motorized using energy provided by a magnetic system. The second option is to use spinal growth force to lengthen the assembly; these techniques (Luque Trolley, Shilla), using a sliding assembly, are known as growth guidance.
These techniques are effective in controlling early scoliotic deformity, and to some extent restore spinal growth. However, they show a high rate of complications: infection, rod breakage, spinal fixation pull out and, above all, progressive spinal stiffness, reducing long-term efficacy. Respiratory gain is harder to assess, as thoracic expansion does not systematically improve respiratory function, particularly due to impaired compliance of the thoracic cage.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Early-onset scoliosis, Fusionless spinal surgery, Spinal growth, Spinal instrumentation