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L’enseignement des TCC : un cas en évolution - 26/11/15

Doi : 10.1016/j.jtcc.2015.09.004 
Stéphane Rusinek a, Vincent Leleu a, b, Thierry Kosinski a, Olivier Richard a,
a Département de psychologie, laboratoire PSITEC, université de Lille–Nord-de-France, domaine universitaire du « Pont-de-Bois », rue du Barreau, BP 60149, 59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex, France 
b Centre hospitalier Philippe-Pinel, route de Paris, 80044 Amiens, France 

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Summary

This article presents a brief description of the evolution of cognitive-behavioral therapy teaching in France over the last thirty or forty years. Teaching has become more and more organised, more and more specialized and goes beyond a simple theoretical presentation of the principles of CBT to explain clinical practice and, today, includes many explanatory models. To understand this evolution, whilst unable to take into consideration all factors, we highlight four aspects which cover many variables: the political and geographical evolution of CBT teaching, the evolution of teaching methods and teachers, the evolution of rules and learners, and the evolution of content. The first aspect covers the progression of CBT from a desire to move away from psychoanalysis to a real therapeutic entity. A progression which could not take place without a real change in public knowledge and representations and, in particular, changes in training in hospital services and university faculties of psychology and medicine. One consequence of the efficiency of CBT is that when a CBT psychologist proves effective, they encourage the recruitment of other CBT psychologists. When there is recruitment, training is made available to meet the demand. CBT teaching involves other aspects which we develop, such as the resources available to teachers. Technology has led to several small revolutions in this area: use of video, use of presentations in the form of slides or, for some, use of Internet tools. Teachers have had to adapt and change style mainly because learners have become used to these small revolutions and always demand a little more. The learners have also changed over the last thirty years. They are better educated, have stronger prerequisites, wider basic knowledge, demand more practical skills, but also more innovation and empirical results. They have changed due to many reasons, for example the evolution of laws such as those protecting the title of psychologist or, more recently, protecting the title of psychotherapist. They have changed because in their original university training they followed a more scientific approach. Aside from these aspects, it is the content that has undoubtedly evolved the most in CBT teaching, even if this is not immediately evident. Thirty years ago, post-graduate training in CBT consisted of around a hundred hours, perhaps slightly more, whereas today the figure is easily triple this. Thirty years ago, the epistemological and experimental bases of CBT were presented followed by a few techniques. Today, multiple models have been developed and CBT fields have opened up to other techniques. Empirical knowledge has changed because the science and practice have evolved, whether this be in terms of behavioral aspects or cognitive aspects, or even on other levels of interpretation such as neuropsychiatry. The question to be asked concerns the real value of complex models as, in reality, as we have shown in the example of panic disorders, the complexity of the model changes nothing in terms of the treatment that CBT offers. It is not possible in this synthesis to treat all aspects of the evolution of CBT teaching, nor even to develop one aspect in particular to show its singularity, but it is possible to realize that teaching has greatly progressed due to scientific, technological and social factors. It seems particularly important to note that this evolution is due to many influences and that, all things considered, we are all participants in this process. This means that CBT and the teaching of CBT in the future years will depend on us.

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Keywords : Training, Teaching, Attention, CBT, Method


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© 2015  Association française de thérapie comportementale et cognitive. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
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Vol 25 - N° 4

P. 189-195 - novembre 2015 Retour au numéro
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  • Les thérapies cognitivo-comportementales face aux hallucinations auditives dans la schizophrénie : une revue de la littérature
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