Although fractures of the proximal femur (FPF) are supposedly less frequent in Black populations (studies of incidence are rare) the life expectancy in Africa is low, which could partially explain this notion. There is only one retrospective study on the incidence of FPF in the islands of the Caribbean, thus we performed an incidence study in the insular, circumscribed, 90% Afro-Caribbean population of Martinique. The goals of this study were: (1) to estimate the incidence of FPF; (2) and to prospectively describe the main characteristics.
The incidence of fractures of the proximal femur in Martinique is lower than in Western countries.
Patients and methods
The raw and standardized incidence ratio of FPF in relation to the world population was estimated based on data from the Medical Information System Program (Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d’information [PMSI]) for all of Martinique for a period of 4 years (January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013). Characteristics were based on all patients over the age of 60 who presented to the Fort-de-France University Hospital (CHU) for a FPF between December 1, 2011 and April 31, 2012. Patients with light-skin phenotype, high-energy fractures and secondary fractures were excluded from the study.
The standardized incidence ratio in relation to the world population was estimated (n=794) as 22.5/100,000 patient-years [20.6–24.4]: 22.6 and 22.4/100,000 in men and women respectively. The characteristics of eighty-seven patients (including 56 women), mean age 85.3 (±7.2) (62–100) years old were evaluated: 52 femoral neck fractures (60%) and 33 fractures of the greater trochanter (38%). The 2-month mortality rate was 21%, and 1/3 of the surviving patients could function independently. The risk of death increased in relation to the initial risk of moderate to severe dementia.
The incidence of FPF in Martinique is lower than in Western countries and includes, as expected, an elderly, female population. Unlike a previous study performed in Guadeloupe, there was a majority of femoral neck fractures. A Caribbean multi-insular study is needed to confirm these results and to obtain precise data on bone density.
Level of evidence
IV; descriptive prospective epidemiological study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Epidemiology, Incidence, Fracture of the upper part of the femur, Geriatric trauma, Afro-Caribbean population