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Management and outcome of traumatic epidural hematoma in 41 infants and children from a single center - 20/09/16

Doi : 10.1016/j.otsr.2016.06.003 
H. Binder a, , M. Majdan d, T.M. Tiefenboeck a, A. Fochtmann b, M. Michel a, S. Hajdu a, W. Mauritz c, J. Leitgeb a
a Department of Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 
b Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 
c Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Lorenz Böhler Hospital, Vienna, Austria 
d International Neurotrauma Research Organization, Vienna, Austria 

Corresponding author at: Department of Trauma Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Tel.: +43 1 40400 70610.

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Abstract

Background

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children.

Hypothesis

We hypothese that due to adequate treatment of EDH in children and adolescence excellent clinical and functional outcome can be reached.

Purpose

To evaluate retrospectively our treatment process of EDH and to elucidate the relationship between trauma mechanism, injury pattern, radiological presentation, subsequent therapy and functional outcome.

Patients and methods

Hundred and twenty infants and children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) were treated between 1992 and 2009 at a single level-one trauma center. Data regarding accident, treatment and outcomes were collected retrospectively. To classify the outcomes the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at hospital discharge and at follow-up visits were used. EDH was classified according to the Rotterdam score.

Results

Finally, 41 cases were diagnosed with an EDH and therefore included in our study. Twenty-one cases were treated surgically; however of these in 11 patients delayed surgery was necessary. Twenty patients were treated conservatively. Two patients (5%) died within 24hours, 39 patients (95%) survived. One of the operatively treated patients (2%) presented in a vegetative state, another one had severe disability, and however, 32 patients (78%) showed good recovery at latest follow-up.

Discussion

Age, severity of TBI, and neurological status were the main factors influencing outcome after TBI due to acute EDH. We found that immediate as well as delayed surgical evacuation of EDH resulted in excellent outcomes in most cases. Conservative treatment was started in 76% of our cases – however needing in 35% delayed surgical intervention. Overall in all groups excellent final clinical and neurological outcomes could be reached.

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Keywords : Traumatic brain injury, Epidural hematoma, Infants, Children and adolescent, Prognostic factors, Outcome


Plan


 Investigation performed at the Department of Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Vienna, Austria.


© 2016  Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
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Vol 102 - N° 6

P. 769-774 - octobre 2016 Retour au numéro
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