Few studies have been conducted to explore the use of the vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) technique in complex hand injuries. The aim of this study was to report outcomes in patients with complex hand injuries receiving VSD as a coadjuvant treatment prior to second-stage surgery.
This case series study retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent VSD for treatment of hand injuries. Inclusion criteria for the study were: (1) traumatic soft tissue defects of the hand and wrist, accompanied by different degrees of injury and exposure of bone, tendon, or blood vessel; (2) the wound surface of hand and wrist was seriously contaminated and direct wound closure was not possible; and (3) the soft tissues of hand and wrist were seriously lacerated or avulsed, and showed necrosis or acute infection. After debridement, one-stage and/or two-stage repairs using healthy adjacent tissues were performed and the wound was covered by the VSD materials. The non-cytotoxic polyethylene alcohol hydration seaweed salt foam was applied during the VSD treatment for its good biocompatibility. The drainage tube was connected to the vacuum equipment and the negative pressures were set at –60kPa to –40kPa. The VSD device was left in place for 5 to 7 days before removal. Either free skin grafting or skin flap transplantation was used for wound closure and/or reconstructive surgery. The hand injury severity score was used to assess wound severity. The surgical results were scored using the total active motion classification.
A total of 17 patients (13 and 4 patients had major and severe hand injuries), averaging 33.8 years were included. During the study period, 6 patients with severe hand injuries were not treated with VSD for the following reasons: (1) hemodynamic instability (n=1); (2) impaired coagulation function (n=1); (3) uncontrollable hemorrhage on the wound surface (n=2); and (4) exposure of the main blood vessels after surgical repair (n=2). VSD treatment was performed for an average of 7.4 days (range, 6–14 days) and the duration of wound healing averaged 23 days (range, 20–43 days). Wound infection was not reported prior to second-stage surgery. Only one of 17 patients had superficial necrosis at the flap edge, for a success rate of 94%. Average follow-up was 8.7 months (range, 4–13 months). Twelve (71%) patients reported excellent or good, four (23%) reported fair, and one (6%) reported poor results.
The VSD can effectively promote safe and rapid repair of local soft tissues with good prognosis.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Vacuum sealing drainage, Pre-surgical adjunct, Complex (open) hand injuries, Wound preparation