Previous studies have reported conflicting findings concerning the efficacy and safety of the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures (OTA 31-A1,A2 and A3) using short intramedullary nails (SIN) and long intramedullary nails (LIN). The present meta-analysis and literature review investigated the outcomes of SIN and LIN, thereby providing guidance for the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures. When used to treat intertrochanteric femur fractures, LIN did not decrease the secondary femoral shaft refracture or reoperation rates. Eight electronic databases were searched for studies related to the use of SIN compared to LIN in treating intertrochanteric fractures. The modified Jadad Scale and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) were used to assess the methodological quality and the risk of bias of these studies. The two groups were compared based on nine indicators, including the surgical times, intraoperative blood loss, transfusion, length of hospital stay, secondary femoral shaft refracture, reoperation, 1-year mortality, Harris hip scores (1 year) and complications. A total of 2431 patients were included in the analysis, with 1498 LIN cases and 940 SIN cases (bilateral nails were used in 7 cases), and the average patient age was 74.83 years. The pooled results indicated that patients in the LIN group had longer surgical times (MD [mean difference]: 12.56; 95% CI: 8.28–16.84; P<0.00001), more intraoperative blood loss (MD: 37.44; 95% CI: 8.06–66.82, P=0.01) and a higher transfusion rate (OR [odds ratio]: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.12–2.10, P=0.008) than patients in the SIN group. However, there was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay (MD: 0.24; 95% CI: −0.58–1.06, P=0.56), occurrence of secondary femoral shaft refractures (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.34–1.53, P=0.39), reoperation rate (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.60–1.50, P=0.82), 1-year mortality (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.67–1.8, P=0.71), Harris hip score (MD: 1.87; 95% CI: −2.8–6.54, P=0.43) or complication rate (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.84–1.99, P=0.25). LIN may not be a better method or provide more effective treatment for intertrochanteric femur fractures; the LIN patients demonstrated the same prognosis as the SIN patients, particularly in terms of secondary femoral shaft refracture and reoperation rate, but they experienced greater trauma. Due to the limitations of the included studies, however, more highly powered randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the findings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of evidence: III.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Hip fracture, Intertrochanteric fracture, Intramedullary nailing, Meta-analysis