Surgeon at primary total hip arthroplasty sometimes cannot achieve sufficient cementless acetabular press-fit fixation and must resort to other fixation methods. Despite a predominant use of cementless cups, this issue is not fully clarified, therefore we performed a large retrospective study to: (1) identify risk factors related to patient or implant or surgeon for unsuccessful intraoperative press-fit; (2) check for correlation between surgeons’ volume of operated cases and the press-fit success rate.
Unsuccessful intra-operative press-fit more often occurs in older female patients, particular implants, due to learning curve and low-volume surgeons.
Materials and methods
Retrospective observational cohort of prospectively collected intraoperative data (2009–2016) included all primary total hip arthroplasty patients with implant brands that offered acetabular press-fit fixation only. Press-fit was considered successful if acetabulum was of the same implant brand as the femoral component without additional screws or cement. Logistic regression models for unsuccessful acetabular press-fit included patients’ gender/age/operated side, implant, surgeon, approach (posterior n=1206, direct-lateral n=871) and surgery date (i.e. learning curve).
In 2077 patients (mean 65.5 years, 1093 females, 1163 right hips), three different implant brands (973 ABG-II™-Stryker, 646 EcoFit™ Implantcast, 458 Procotyl™ L-Wright) were implanted by eight surgeons. Their unsuccessful press-fit fixation rates ranged from 3.5% to 23.7%. Older age (odds ratio 1.01 [95% CI: 0.99–1.02]), female gender (2.87 [95% CI: 2.11–3.91]), right side (1.44 [95% CI: 1.08–1.92]), surgery date (0.90 [95% CI: 1.08–1.92]) and particular implants were significant risk factors only in three surgeons with less successful surgical technique (higher rates of unsuccessful press-fit with Procotyl™-L and EcoFit™ [P=0.01]). Direct-lateral hip approach had a lower rate of unsuccessful press-fit than posterior hip approach (P<0.01), but there was no correlation between surgeons’ volume and rate of successful press-fit (Spearman's rho=0.10, P=0.82). Subcohort of 961 patients with 5–7-years follow-up indicated higher early/late cup revision rates with unsuccessful press-fit.
Success of press-fit fixation depends entirely on the surgeon and surgical approach. With proper operative technique, the unsuccessful press-fit fixation rate should be below 5% and the impact of patients’ characteristics or implants on press-fit fixation is then insignificant. Findings of huge variability in operative technique between surgeons of the presented study emphasize the need for surgeon-specific data stratification in arthroplasty studies and indicate the possibility of false attribution of clinically observed phenomena to patient-related factors in pooled data of large centers or hip arthroplasty registers.
Level of evidence
Level III, retrospective observational case control study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Total hip arthroplasty, Press fit fixation, Risk factors