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The survival rate of children with cancer is now close to 80 %, as a result of continuous improvement in diagnostic and treatment procedures. Prevention and treatment of treatment-associated complications is now a major challenge. Thromboembolic venous disease, due to multifactorial pathogenesis, is a frequent complication (up to 40 % asymptomatic thrombosis in children with cancer), responsible for significant morbidity. Predominantly in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, or sarcoma, thromboembolic disease justifies primary prophylaxis in certain populations at risk, whether genetic or environmental. The curative treatment, well codified, is based on the administration of low-molecular-weight heparin. In the absence of robust pediatric prospective studies, this article proposes a concise decision tree summarizing the preventive and curative strategy.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Thromboembolic venous disease, Pediatric oncology, Cancer