Dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) corresponds to mild increase in both liver and body iron stores associated with various components of metabolic syndrome in the absence of any identifiable cause of iron excess. It is characterized by hyperferritinemia with normal or moderately increased transferrin saturation, one or several metabolic abnormalities (increased body mass index with android distribution of fat, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, steatohepatitis), and mild hepatic iron excess at magnetic resonance imaging or liver biopsy. Alteration of iron metabolism in DIOS likely results from a multifactorial and dynamic process triggered by an excessively rich diet, facilitated by environmental and genetic cofactors and implying a cross-talk between the liver and visceral adipose tissue. Phlebotomy therapy cannot be currently considered as a valuable option in DIOS patients. Sustained modification of diet and life-style habits remains the first therapeutic intervention in these patients together with drug control of increased blood pressure, abnormal blood glucose and dyslipidaemia when necessary.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.