The discovery of hyperferritinemia is often fortuitous, revealed in results from a laboratory screening or follow-up test. The aim of the diagnostic procedure is therefore to identify its cause and to identify or rule out hepatic iron overload, in a three-stage process. In the first step, clinical findings and several simple laboratory tests are sufficient to detect four of the most frequent causes of high ferritin concentrations: alcoholism, inflammatory syndrome, cytolysis, and metabolic syndrome. None of these causes is associated with substantial hepatic iron overload. If transferrin saturation is high (> 50%), hereditary hemochromatosis will be considered in priority. In the second phase, rarer diseases will be sought. Among them, only chronic hematologic diseases (acquired or congenital) and excessive iron intake or infusions (patients on chronic dialysis and high-level athletes) are at risk of iron overload. In the third stage, if a doubt persists about the cause or if the ferritin concentration is very high or continues to rise, it is essential to verify the hepatic iron concentration to rule out overload. The principal examination to guide diagnosis and treatment is hepatic MRI to assess its iron concentration. It is essential to remember that more than 40% of patients with hyperferritinemia have several causes simultaneously present.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.