Surgical reduction of congenital hip dislocation is technically challenging. In our practice, surgical reduction is usually reserved for patients who have failed non-operative treatment, which is the first-line strategy. However, primary surgery may be indicated if the dislocation is diagnosed late and can be performed until 8 years of age. The reduction step is crucial. It starts with painstaking exposure of the capsule. Identifying the lower part of the acetabulum is the key to accurate repositioning of the epiphysis. The main intra-articular procedures are resection of the ligament teres, adipose tissue within the acetabular cavity, and transverse acetabular ligament; and eversion of the radially incised limbus. In patients younger than 1 year of age, surgical reduction can be performed via the anterior approach or, in some cases, the obturator approach. No complementary steps are needed. If the diagnosis is made late, in contrast, reduction of the hip must be combined with corrective procedures on the femur and acetabulum designed to stabilise the reduction before the capsulorrhaphy, with the goal of optimising hip stability and minimising the risk of residual dysplasia. Femoral shortening and derotation osteotomy was classically reserved for children older than 3 years but has now been shown to be a useful and prudent procedure in younger patients. This osteotomy decreases pressure on the epiphysis, facilitates the reduction, and diminishes the risk of recurrence and avascular necrosis of the femoral head, which are the two dreaded complications. The outcome depends on the care directed to the procedure and on the quality of postoperative management.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Congenital dislocation of the hip, Surgical reduction, Femoral shortening osteotomy, Innominate osteotomy, Acetabuloplasty, Avascular necrosis