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Delirium in the perioperative period is a wide-reaching problem that directly affects important clinical outcomes. It is essential that anesthesiologists understand how to define and diagnose delirium, identify patients at high risk for developing delirium, recognize precipitating factors to appropriately adjust care plans, and manage patients who develop delirium in the acute postoperative period. Importantly, delirium remains underdiagnosed in the perioperative setting, but many screening and assessment tools are readily available to aid non-psychiatric trained personnel in identifying delirium. Finally, understanding and implementing strategies to prevent patients from developing delirium is of utmost importance, as evidence-based pharmacological treatments for delirium are minimal and have significant limitations.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.