Cognition is essential to all aspects of our everyday life. Although we take our cognitive function for granted, the perioperative period is prone to several aggressions that might impair it. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, has been the aim of many studies recently, and was shown to be very common with an incidence that can reach 40%, yielding not only impairment in cognition, but also longer hospital stays, higher costs and greater mortality. While several studies have revealed some of the mechanisms contributing to postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the search for the perfect instrument to screen and measure cognitive (dys)function has proven more elusive. The present paper aims to review several cognitive evaluation methods, discussing their advantages and disadvantages as well as their potential clinical applications in evaluating the dynamics of the recovery of cognitive function after anesthesia and surgery. The current availability of easy to use computerized tests might provide the tools necessary to identify patients at risk, and promptly provide them with the adequate course of action.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.