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Acute gingivostomatitis in children: Epidemiology in the emergency department, pain, and use of codeine before its restriction - 11/01/19

Doi : 10.1016/j.arcped.2018.11.004 
N. de Suremain a, , R. Guedj a, A. Fratta b, A. Franclin a, S. Loschi a, J. Aroulandom a, R. Carbajal a, c
a Service des urgences pédiatriques, hôpital Armand-Trousseau, AP–HP, 26, avenue du Dr-Arnold-Netter, 75012 Paris, France 
b Service de la pharmacie, hôpital Armand-Trousseau, AP–HP, 75012 Paris, France 
c Inserm U1153, université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Paris VI, 75005 Paris, France 

Corresponding author.
Sous presse. Épreuves corrigées par l'auteur. Disponible en ligne depuis le vendredi 11 janvier 2019

Abstract

Acute gingivostomatitis is relatively frequent in children; of viral origin, its diagnosis is usually straightforward. Acute gingivostomatitis is very painful and for many years, codeine, whose use was restricted in 2013, was widely employed in this context. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of acute stomatitis in pediatric emergency care, to evaluate the pain caused by stomatitis, and to determine the analgesic resources deployed both in the emergency department and at discharge, over the 5-year period preceding restriction of the use of codeine.

Methods

This was a retrospective study conducted in a pediatric emergency department (PED) of a university hospital between August 2008 and June 2013.

Results

A total of 702 children (372 herpetic gingivostomatitis [HGS], 149 herpangina [H], 181 hand, foot, and mouth disease [HFMD]) were included. Over the 5 years, one case of gingivostomatitis was identified for 303 visits to the PED. A total of 548 (78.1%) children were aged less than 36 months and the median age was 22 months. For 501 of 702 (71.4%) children, parents reported pain and/or feeding difficulties; in the HGS group, 314 of 372 (84.4%) patients had these symptoms. Of the 702 children, 48 (6.8%) were admitted to hospital. Overall, 457 (65.1%) of 702 children were given codeine before the PED visit, during the PED visit, or as a medication to take after discharge. The corresponding figures were 314 of 372 (84.4%) for the HGS group, 67 of 149 (45.0%) for the H group, and 76 of 181 (42.0%) for the HFMD group, P<0.001.

Conclusions

Acute gingivostomatitis is a relative frequent reason for PED visits, and the pain and feeding difficulties that it elicits are a real challenge. Before codeine restriction, this medication played a major role in the analgesic strategy for this disease. It is essential that analgesic regimens at least as effective as codeine replace it. Morphine combined with paracetamol or the association of ibuprofen with paracetamol are options that are recommended by the French National Health Authority (HAS).

Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.

Keywords : Epidemiology, Pain, Stomatitis, Gingivostomatitis, Codeine, Child


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