Dry eye is a complex multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tears. It is associated with ocular surface symptoms and is one of the most common causes for ophthalmologic consultation. Despite their frequent use in clinical practice, the usual tests to evaluate dry eye and ocular surface disease–history of symptoms, tear break-up time (TBUT), Meibomian gland evaluation, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer test–have shown low reproducibility and reliability. In addition, subjective symptoms are often weakly or poorly correlated with objective signs. Since the tear film is the first system through which light must pass, the optical quality of the eye is highly dependent on the homogeneity of the tear film. Various investigative methods have been developed to evaluate both the structural and functional quality of the tear film, such as corneal topography, interferometry, tear meniscus measurement, evaporation rate, tear osmolarity and even aberrometry. Some are easily accessible to clinicians, while others remain in the field of clinical research. All of these tests provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the tear film. This review hopes to provide an overview of the existing tests and their role in evaluating the significance of the tear film in visual function.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Dry eye, Ocular surface, Tear film, Optical quality, Aberrometry, Tests