Nickel is a common allergen.
To examine the epidemiology of nickel sensitivity in North America.
Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 44,097 patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group from 1994 to 2014. Nickel sensitivity was defined as a positive patch test for nickel. We evaluated the frequency of nickel sensitivity and patient demographics. For each positive reaction to nickel, we tabulated clinical relevance, occupational relatedness, and exposure sources.
The average frequency of nickel sensitivity was 17.5% (1994-2014). Nickel sensitivity significantly increased over time (from 14.3% in 1994-1996 to 20.1% in 2013-2014 [P < .0001]). Nickel-sensitive patients were significantly more likely to be female, young, nonwhite, and atopic (have eczema and asthma) and/or have dermatitis affecting the face, scalp, ears, neck, arm, or trunk (P values ≤ .0474). Overall, 55.5% of reactions were currently clinically relevant; this percentage significantly increased over time (from 44.1% in 1994-1996 to 51.6% in 2013-2014 [P < .0001]). The rate of occupational relatedness was 3.7% overall, with a significant decrease over time (from 7.9% in 1994-1996 to 1.9% in 2013-2014 [P < .0001]). Jewelry was the most common source of nickel contact.
Tertiary referral population.
Nickel allergy is of substantial public health importance in North America. The frequency of nickel sensitivity in patients referred for patch testing has significantly increased over a 20-year period.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Key words : allergic contact dermatitis, nickel, North American Contact Dermatitis Group
Abbreviations used : ACD, CI, EU, NACDG, NOS, RR, SANR
| Funding sources: Supported in part by the Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association and in part with resources and the use of facilities at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The contents do not represent the views of the US Department of Veterans Affairs or the US Government.
| Disclosure: Dr Taylor is a consultant for Johnson & Johnson, Monsanto, Equinox Group, and Kao Brands; a stockholder for Johnson & Johnson, Express Scripts, Opko Health, Allergan, Astra Zeneca, and Merck; and an author for Decision Support in Medicine; in addition, he has a nondependent child who is employed by Pfizer. Dr Zirwas is part owner of AsepticMD; he is a speaker, consultant, and investigator for Regeneron/Sanofi; a speaker for Genentech/Novartis; a consultant for Fit Bit, L'Oreal, and Menlo; and an investigator for Leo, Janssen, Incyte, Foamix, DS Biopharma, and UCB. Dr Warshaw, Ms Zhang, Dr Mathias, Dr DeKoven, Dr Maibach, Dr Sasseville, Dr Belsito, Dr Fowler, Dr Zug, Dr Fransway, Dr DeLeo, Dr Marks, and Dr Pratt have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
| Reprints not available from the authors.