Calpain 1 is a proinflammatory calcium-activated cysteine protease, which can be partly externalized. Extracellular calpains limit inflammatory processes and promote tissue repair, through cell proliferation and migration. Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 has been identified as a target of extracellular calpains in lymphocytes. The aim was to investigate the externalization of calpain 1 and the release of soluble TLR2 during tumor progression of pulmonary lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA). Extracellular calpain 1, soluble fragment of TLR2 and cytokines were analyzed by ELISA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) supernatants from patients with LPA (n=68). Source of calpain was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and soluble TLR2 by flow cytometry on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human lung cancer cell lines. Extracellular calpain 1, secreted by tumor cells, was associated to tumor progression, neutrophilic inflammation, with a poor prognostic factor on survival (P=0.003). TLR2 was expressed on PMN and tumor cells and decreased after calpain exposure. Soluble fragment of TLR2 in BALF supernatants was correlated to the extracellular calpain 1 concentration (r=0.624; P<0.001), and its high level was associated with tumor progression and a pro-inflammatory environment. Extracellular calpain 1 secreted by tumor cells, could participate in inflammatory microenvironment and tumor progression through TLR2 in LPA.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Calpain, Toll like receptor 2, Lung cancer, Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, Adenocarcinoma