Background and objective
A wide range of adjunct therapies after botulinum toxin administration have been proposed. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of major writings dealing with adjuvant (non-pharmacological) treatments associated with botulinum toxin for managing spasticity in order to provide some up-to-date information about the usefulness of the most commonly used procedures.
The literature in PubMed was searched with the MeSH terms botulinum toxins, muscle spasticity, physical therapy modalities, and rehabilitation. The results were limited to studies focusing on adjuvant treatments associated with botulinum toxin for managing spasticity. We excluded papers on the use of non-drug treatments for spasticity not associated with botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT-A) injection. Relevant literature known to the authors along with this complementary search represented the basis for this overview of the literature.
Adhesive taping and casting effectively improved the botulinum toxin effect in patients with upper- and lower-limb spasticity. There is level 1 evidence that casting is better than taping for outcomes including spasticity, range of motion and gait. However, consensus about their most appropriate timing, duration, target and material is lacking. In terms of physical modalities combined with botulinum toxin injection, we found level 1 evidence that extracorporeal shock wave therapy is better than electrical stimulation for some post-injection outcomes including spasticity and pain. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of injected muscles might be useful to boost the toxin effect. However, the best stimulation protocol has not been defined. In addition, we found level 2b evidence that whole-body vibration therapy might reduce spasticity with cerebral palsy.
Future research in this field should focus on investigating the most appropriate post-injection treatment protocol for each goal to achieve.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Botulinum toxins, Muscle spasticity, Physical therapy modalities, Rehabilitation