Schizophyllum commune is an environmental basidiomycetous fungus, causing occasional, predominantly respiratory, infections in humans. Although S. commune is considered an emerging pathogen, some authors pointed out the possibility that the increase in the diagnosed cases may be also due to recent advances in diagnostic technologies now allowing a more prompt and precise identification at the species level. Here we describe the first Italian case of chronic non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis due to S. commune in an immunocompetent subject and update the literature review on S. commune sinusitis published between 2012–2019. A timely diagnosis is important to avoid local and systemic complications due to infection with this fungus. In our case, prompt identification at species level was only possible with the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and confirmed by sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA ITS regions, due to the difficulty in achieving a correct and rapid identification using routine morphological analysis.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Schizophyllum commune, Fungal rhinosinusitis, Fungus ball, DNA sequencing, MALDI-TOF MS, Fiberoptic endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)