Plasma exchange is a well-established therapeutic procedure commonly used in many autoimmune disorders. The beneficial effects of plasma exchange are thought to occur through the elimination of pathogenic mediators found in plasma, including autoantibodies, complement components, and cytokines. The catastrophic antiphsopholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a life-threatening variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) where several thrombosis take place in a short period of time in patients with circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. The triple therapy with anticoagulation, corticosteroids and plasma exchange or intravenous immunoglobulins has been proposed in CAPS. CAPS is a rare disease precluding the conduction of formal clinical trials. However, the observation of a better clinical course of patients who received this treatment supports their use. Plasma exchange has become an established therapeutic procedure in CAPS but there are no studies regarding the better approach and thus its use relies on the experience of the physicians in charge. The current article aims to review potential mechanisms of action of plasma exchange and the technical aspects of this procedure and will focus on its current role in CAPS, the experience published in treating this condition and the treatment protocol that we use in our institution.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.