This article presents the most recent data (2018) on the epidemiology of emerging extensively drug-resistant bacteria (eXDR) in France, alongside the control measures implemented in hospitals, from two complementary sources: external nosocomial infection notifications and the National Reference Centre for antibiotic resistance. This report shows the constant increase in the annual number of eXDR bacteria identified in France since 2012.
This 2018 report of Healthcare-Associated Infections Early Warning and Response System (HAI-EWRS) notifications of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) or glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE), and of strains analysed by the National Reference Center for anti-microbial resistance (NRC) aimed to describe the epidemiology of emerging extensively drug-resistant bacteria (eXDR) in France and control measures implemented in hospital settings.
Patients and methods
All HAI-EWRS notifications of eXDR received at the national level and all eXDR strains received at the NRC between January 1, 2018 and January 31, 2018 were analysed. Variables analysed were number of cases, number of strains, resistance mechanism, sample type, link with a foreign country, and control measures implemented.
In 2018, 1704 CPE notifications and 315 GRE notifications were reported in France, with an increasing trend since 2012 (×6 for CPE, ×3 for GRE), from respectively 364 and 155 hospitals (+66% for CPE, +57% for GRE since 2012). eXDR strains were mainly isolated from rectal screening swabs. Notifications with patients receiving standard precautions were more often associated with outbreaks than notifications with patients receiving contact precautions at admission. NRC received 2674 CPE strains and 775 GRE strains in 2018 (×8.3 and ×2.8 compared with 2012).
The increasing annual number of eXDR notifications and eXDR strains received by the NRC is multifactorial but reflects a worrying spread of eXDR in France. The number of infections remains low, but this article shows that existing recommendations are not fully implemented.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Emerging extensively drug-resistant bacteria, Anti-microbial resistance, France