Cancer of the vulva recurrences vary considerably over time and are influenced by several pathological, surgical and adjuvant therapeutic prognostic factors. However, limited information is available about patterns of disease recurrence and prognosis. We analysed patterns of vulvar cancer recurrence based on a large French multicentre database.
Data of women with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and other vulvar cancer treated between 1976 and 2016 were retrospectively abstracted from five institutions with prospectively maintained vulvar cancer databases in France. The endpoints were pattern of recurrence, recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Time to the first recurrence in a specific site was evaluated by using cumulative incidence analysis (Gray’s test) and competing risks regression analysis to estimate sub-distribution hazard ratios and 95% CIs.
In the whole population, recurrences were observed in 188 of the 617 women (30%) with local-regional, distant and multifocal recurrences in 18% (109/617), 3% (17/617), 10% (62/617), respectively. The median time to recurrence with Interquartile Range (IQR) was 13 months IQR [8–30]. The overall respective 3-years OS and RFS were 78.5% (IC95%: 74.5–82.5) and 75.5% (IC95%: 71.1–80.0). According to FIGO stage, lymph node status and positive lympho-vascular invasion (LVSI), pattern and time of loco-regional and distant recurrence were significantly different. There wasn’t interaction between FIGO stage and LVSI in OS neither RFS (p=0.08 and 0.9 respectively).
Conclusion and discussion
We report specific time and site patterns of first recurrence according to FIGO stage, lymph node status and lymphovascular invasion status. Positive LVSI is an important and independent prognostic factor. Defining patterns of recurrence may provide useful information for developing follow-up recommendations and designing therapeutic approaches.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Vulvar cancer, Recurrence, Prognostic factor, LVSI