Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in children and adults including pregnant women. During pregnancy, maternal vitamin D insufficiency could increase risks of several pregnancy complications and adverse birth outcomes. The FEPED study was designed to assess the effects of maternal vitamin D status in the first trimester during pregnancy on risks of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth and small-for-gestational age (SGA) at birth. This observational prospective cohort included 3129 women with a singleton pregnancy between April 2012 and July 2014 in six maternity units in France and Belgium. The aim of this review is to summarize the results of the FEPED study. At the first trimester the mean 25(OH)D concentration was 21.9 ± 10.4 ng/mL and 25(OH)D concentration was <20 ng/mL in 46.5 % of patients. After matching 83 cases of preeclampsia with 319 controls, a significant decrease in the risk of preeclampsia was associated with maternal vitamin D levels ≥ 30 ng/mL in the third trimesters (OR = 0.34; 95 % CI: 0.13−0.86. P = 0.023). In the first trimester, the risk for preeclampsia was decreased in these patients, but did not achieve statistical significance (OR = 0.57 95 % CI, 0.30−1.01; p = 0.09). For the 250 cases with GDM matched with 941 controls, no linear relationship was found between GDM and 25OHD levels in the first trimester of pregnancy. Finally, 2813 pregnant women were included in analyses of risks of preterm and SGA birth. No association was found between low maternal vitamin D levels in the first trimester and the risks of preterm birth (aOR = 1.53; 95 % CI: 0.97−2.43) or SGA (aOR = 1.07; 95 % CI: 0.75−1.54). Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms behind the association between vitamin D and birth outcomes.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Vitamin D, 25(OH)-vitamin D3preterm birth, Preeclampsia, Gestational diabetes, FEPED