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Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is potentially insufficiently considered by clinician, being of rare etiology, with there being no previously published exhaustive study describing its clinical and biological features.
Two independent academic clinicians searched all the case reports of DIAM from 1995 until 15th April, 2017. The search was limited to studies performed in humans, published in English or French. Clinical and biological data of subjects were compared with those of patients with documented viral meningitis.
One hundred and fifty-one case reports fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the commonest drug cause of AM n=49, followed by antibiotics n=46, biotherapy n=19 and finally immunomodulators n=15. The clinical and biological presentation of DIAM varies according to the causative etiological drug, especially with respect to the interval between exposure and presentation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleiocytosis. Clinical symptoms associated with meningitis were more prevalent in viral meningitis than in DIAM, except for fever and signs of encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid examination in DIAM reveals an increased CSF white cell count and an increased proportion of neutrophils and protein, compared with viral meningitis.
We present an extensive review of the DIAM case reports, and highlight their clinical and biological characteristics according to the drugs involved. While comparing for the first time their characteristics with those of viral meningitis, this review hopes in facilitate earlier diagnosis and management of DIAM in clinical practice.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Drug-induced aseptic meningitis, Viral meningitis, Aseptic meningitis