The Coronavirus disease-2019 outbreak (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Studies report both a severe inflammatory syndrome and a procoagulant state in severe COVID-19 cases, with an increase of venous thromboembolism, including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). In this context, we discuss the use of doppler ultrasonography (DUS) in the screening and diagnosis of DVT in ambulatory and hospitalized patients with, or suspected of having, COVID-19, outside the intensive care unit (ICU).
Material and methods
Non-systematic review of the literature.
In patients hospitalized for or suspected of COVID-19 infection with the presence of either (a) DVT clinical symptoms, (b) a strong DVT clinical probability (Wells score>2) or (c) elevated D-dimer levels without DVT clinical symptoms and without PE on lung CT angio-scan, DVT should be investigated with DUS. In the presence of PE diagnosed clinically and/or radiologically, additional systematic DVT screening using DUS is not recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of 4-points compression DUS for DVT screen and diagnosis is the most appropriate method in this context.
Systematic DUS for DVT screening in asymptomatic COVID patients is not recommended unless the patient is in the ICU. This would increase the risk of unnecessarily exposing medical staff to SARS-CoV-2 and monopolizing limited resources during this period.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Venous thromboembolism, Pulmonary embolism, COVID-19 associated coagulopathy, COVID-19 pandemic, Four-points compression ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound, Wells score