Hepatitis C virus infection affects 71 million people worldwide. It is at the origin of a multi-organ disease associating hepatic manifestations, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and general manifestations linked to chronic inflammation (diabetes, cardio-, reno- or cerebrovascular manifestations, extra-hepatic cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma). The significant morbidity and mortality linked to the hepatitis C virus therefore justify its screening and access to treatments which have increased considerably over the past two decades. Understanding the replicative cycle of the hepatitis C virus has enabled the development of direct HCV-specific antivirals targeting viral proteins (NS3/4A protease, NS5B polymerase and the multifunctional NS5A replication complex). The combination of two to three specific inhibitors often co-formulated in a capsule, without pegylated interferon and most often without ribavirin, allows high antiviral efficacy (more than 97% cure) for a treatment duration of 8–12 weeks with satisfactory tolerance. HCV infection is the only chronic viral infection that can be cured and the hepatic or extrahepatic manifestations are mainly reversible. This underlines the importance of strengthening screening and access to care policies in order to achieve the elimination of viral infection C in the short term, in 2030, as expected from the program of the World Health Organization. If this elimination is possible in some countries (Iceland, France, Germany …), it seems compromised in others where prevention (USA), screening and/or access to care are still insufficient (Sub-Saharan Africa, Russia…).Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Hepatitis C virus or HCV, Direct antiviral agents or DAAs, HCV protease inhibitors, HCV polymerase inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, Cirrhosis