Perioperative ventilation is an important challenge of anaesthesia, especially in obese patients: body mass index is correlated with reduction of the pulmonary volume and they develop significantly more perioperative atelectasis and pulmonary complications. The alveolar recruitment manoeuvre is the most effective technique to reverse atelectasis. However, the clinical benefit on lung function in the perioperative period is not clear. The aim of the present study is to assess the perioperative clinical results of systematic alveolar recruitment manoeuvre associated with protective ventilation in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. It was a single-centre, randomised, double blind, superiority trial: control group with standard protective ventilation and recruitment group with protective ventilation and systematic recruitment manoeuvre. The primary outcome was a composite clinical criterion of pulmonary dysfunction including oxygen saturation, oxygen needs and dyspnoea in recovery room and at day 1. Secondary outcomes were recruitment manoeuvre tolerance, pulmonary and non-pulmonary complications, length of hospital stay and proportion of Intensive Care Unit admission. Two hundred and thirty patients were included: 115 in the recruitment manoeuvre group and 115 in the control group, 2 patients were excluded from the analysis in the control group. Patients in the recruitment manoeuvre group had significantly lower rate of pulmonary dysfunction in the recovery room (73% versus 84% (p = 0.043) and 77% versus 88% at postoperative day 1 (p = 0.043)). No significant differences were found for secondary outcomes. No patient was excluded from the recruitment manoeuvre group for intolerance to the manoeuvre. Recruitment manoeuvre is safe and effective in reducing early pulmonary dysfunction in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Recruitment manoeuvre, Atelectasis, Pulmonary dysfunction