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Term newborns at risk for early-onset neonatal sepsis: Clinical surveillance versus systematic paraclinical test - 12/01/21

Doi : 10.1016/j.arcped.2020.11.009 
C. Schmitt a, , M. Novy a, J.-M. Hascoët a, b
a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Maternité Régionale, CHRU Nancy, 54000 Nancy, France 
b DevAH, Lorraine University, 54000 Nancy, France 

Corresponding author.
Sous presse. Épreuves corrigées par l'auteur. Disponible en ligne depuis le Tuesday 12 January 2021

Abstract

Introduction

Early-onset neonatal sepsis is a rare but potentially lethal infection that is very often suspected in daily practice. Previous national guidelines recommended the use of systematic paraclinical tests for healthy term newborns with suspected infection. These guidelines were updated in 2017 by the French Health Authority (Haute Autorité de santé), and promote initial clinical monitoring taking into account the infectious risk level for term and near-term born infants.

Objectives

To assess the impact of the new recommendations on antibiotic therapy prescription and invasive tests, and on the outcomes of infants born from 36weeks’ gestation.

Materials and methods

This study compared the management and the outcome of neonates born from 36weeks’ gestation at the level III University Hospital of Nancy, according to their infectious risk level during two periods, before and after the update of national recommendations: from July 1 to December 31, 2017, versus July 1 to December 31, 2018. Data were retrospectively collected from the infants’ files. This study compared the number and length of antibiotic treatment and the number of invasive tests, the number of documented infections, the number and length of hospitalization, and mortality between the two periods.

Results

During the first period, among 1248 eligible newborns, 643 presented an infectious risk factor, versus 1152 newborns with 343 having an infectious risk factor during the second period. Antibiotic treatment was initiated for 18 newborns during the first period (1.4%) and for nine during the second (0.8%) (P=0.13). The mean (SD) duration of the antibiotic treatment was longer in the first than in the second period: 6.3±2days vs. 3.1±2.3days (P=0.003). There was no death related to neonatal infection. A total of 1052 blood samples were collected during the first period versus 51 during the second (P<0.01). There was no documented infection. In the first period, there were 18 newborns (1.4%) hospitalized for suspected infection versus nine (0.8%) in the second period (P=0.13). The duration of hospitalization was 5.7±1.7days in the first period versus 5.2±3days in the second (P=0.33).

Conclusion

In this study, the application of the new guidelines enabled a reduction of antibiotic exposure and a reduction of invasive tests without additional risk.

Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.

Keywords : Early-onset neonatal sepsis, Clinical management, Term neonates, Antibiotics


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© 2020  French Society of Pediatrics. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
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