Antibiotic-loaded bone cements (ALBCs) are used as spacers in two-stage revision arthroplasty for periprosthetic joint infection. We previously described a new technique applying vancomycin powder coating to custom-made cements. To our best knowledge, this method of superficial vancomycin coating (SVC) has not been assessed before. We therefore performed an in-vitro study to determine: (1) whether manually applied SVC strengthened the cements’ antibiotic effect; and (2) whether the mechanical requirements for the cements were fulfilled.
SVC increases the antibiotic effect of cement within the first 24hours.
Cuboid blocks were produced from two commercially available acrylic ALBCs (Palacos R+G and Copal G+V) with and without SVC. Each block was eluted in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. Eluates obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60minutes and 3, 6 and 24hours were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (Palacos, Copal) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Copal) using zone of inhibition tests. Mechanical test results (bending modulus, bending strength) were compared to ISO requirements (≥1800MPa, ≥50MPa).
Palacos with SVC produced significantly greater zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus than Palacos without SVC (p=0.002). Copal with SVC showed greater zones of inhibition against both Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA (p=0.002). The antibiotic effect was enhanced by SVC in both cements at every time point within 24hours. The bending modulus and bending strength of Palacos with SVC (2089±166MPa, 60.8±2.6 MPA) and Copal with SVC (2283±195MPa, 56.9±2.4MPa) were significantly above ISO requirements.
SVC boosts the antibiotic effect of ALBCs in the first 24hours, while maintaining sufficient stability. These findings endorse SVC as a promising additive in septic revision surgery.
Level of evidence
III; case control study.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Septic revision, Vancomycin, Antibiotics, Bone cement, Periprosthetic joint infection