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International collaboration for blood safety: The French—African experience - 18/04/21

Doi : 10.1016/j.tracli.2021.01.010 
O. Garraud a, b, , T. Schneider c
a INSERM U_1059, Faculty of medicine, University of Lyon–Saint-Étienne, 69007 Saint-Étienne, France 
b Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, 75015 Paris, France 
c Établissement Français du Sang, Direction des affaires internationales, 93218 La Plaine Saint-Denis, France 

Corresponding author at: INSERM U_1059, Faculty of medicine, University of Lyon–Saint-Étienne, 69007 Saint-Étienne, France.INSERM U_1059, Faculty of medicine, University of Lyon–Saint-ÉtienneSaint-Étienne69007France

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Abstract

Blood safety is a non-negotiable issue worldwide, specifies the World Health Organization (WHO). Africa is both an entity and a multiplicity of situations within and cross-borders. Indeed, most African countries have recent borders and political organizations, after gaining independence in the 60's. Many such countries have maintained various types of links and cooperation programs with former European countries of influence, e.g. France and Belgium among others, which is the case for several countries from the francophone Central and West Africa. Besides, borders do not delineate ethnic groups as many of them migrate, with spread North to South and East to West across several countries, each having representations, ethnologically speaking. Transfusion is an essential supportive healthcare that requires medicine, technicity and logistics. Cooperation can be provided to Francophone Africa though at the expense of recruiting donors upon criteria that do not completely overlap with e.g. those put forward in France and other high-income countries, despite WHO claims for the universal model of Voluntary Non-Remunerated Blood Donation system. Next, the patient profile in intertropical Africa—of which the various francophone African countries—stringently differs from the profile now seen in France, with its younger (but strongly social network-connected) populations and the importance of anemia of all causes but frequently infectious in nature. The frequency of antigens defining blood groups also significantly differs from that in France and the rest of Europa. Last, the carriage of blood transmissible infectious pathogens in sick but also apparently healthy populations seriously complicates the build up of suitable blood component inventory. In the present review, we discuss the universality of blood donation, the specificities of inter-continent cooperation and report on experiences of such cooperation. The French Blood Establishment EFS has taken over earlier initiatives of regional blood services and provides technology and scientific transfer and support to many countries for several decades; the National Institute for Blood transfusion, an education and research institute, has set up collaborative research in several domains but mostly in the domain of blood transmissible infections. We next also present a theoretical view of support named ALEASE, that can be pursued, based on collaborative experiences carried out in the Mediterranean Northern and Eastern areas. ALEASE promotes benchmark between participants. If there is general agreement that cooperation between economically wealthy countries and low-income, developing, countries in the domain of blood and blood transfusion safety, promotion of blood donation, blood component manufacturing, transfusion technology, hemovigilance, etc., tools to achieve this goal can be periodically reviewed based on specific needs for countries and professionals. That also comprise of adapted, sometimes specific, education programs.

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Keywords : Blood transfusion, Cooperation, Blood safety, Education, Africa, Francophone Africa, France


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© 2021  Société française de transfusion sanguine (SFTS). Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
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Vol 28 - N° 2

P. 154-157 - mai 2021 Retour au numéro
Article précédent Article précédent
  • Regulation of blood services in Africa
  • J.K. Ansah, C. Kafere, A. Loua, E. Nkansah, M.E. Acquah, L. Mudyiwenyama
| Article suivant Article suivant
  • Hemophilia care in Africa: Status and challenges
  • D.N. Mbanya, S. Diop, A.N. Ndoumba Mintya, M. El Kiaby

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