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GLOS and HARM are imaging marker on contrast-enhanced FLAIR images.
GLOS and HARM may be observed in TIA.
GLOS may be the only pathological imaging finding in TIA.
Background and purpose
Gadolinium leakage in ocular structures (GLOS) on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) is a novel imaging marker in acute ischemic stroke and other neurological disorders.
In patients with transient neurovascular symptoms who underwent repeated MRI with intravenous contrast agent administration, the presence of acute ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) as well as the frequency and pattern of blood-brain barrier and blood-retina barrier impairment as demonstrated by the hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) and GLOS respectively on postcontrast FLAIR were evaluated.
Overall 28 patients with transient neurovascular symptoms (median age 70.5 years; 18 (64.3%) male) were included. Follow-up MRI was performed within 35 (IQR 21–47) hours after the initial MRI. On DWI, acute ischemic lesions were observed in 22 (78.6%). On contrast-enhanced FLAIR, GLOS was observed in 12 (42.9%) patients: in 1 (3.6%) only in the anterior chamber, and in 11 (39.3%) in the anterior chamber and vitreous body. HARM was observed in 3 (10.7%) patients. In one patient without ischemic lesion on DWI or HARM on FLAIR, GLOS was observed in the anterior chamber and vitreous body. Presence of GLOS was associated with higher age (p = 0.04) and detection of HARM (p = 0.03).
In patients with transient neurovascular symptoms, GLOS is a frequent finding and associated with HARM on contrast-enhanced FLAIR. As GLOS was observed in one patient without an ischemic lesion or HARM, it might be useful as an additional imaging marker.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Contrast-enhanced FLAIR, Gadolinium leakage, Ocular, GLOS, Transient ischemic attack, Transient neurovascular symptoms