While diabetic retinopathy is the most specific complication of chronic hyperglycaemia, numerous other ocular conditions also can involve the eyes of people with diabetes. Cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, retinal vascular occlusion, and acute ischaemic optic neuropathy combine to impair vision in people with diabetes, especially when they are old. This report provides a critical analysis and an overview of the current knowledge of the main ocular disorders (excluding diabetic retinopathy) and their association in patients with diabetes.
A literature search strategy was conducted for all English-language literature with a systematic review of key references until 2021.
Patients with diabetes have a high-to-moderate increased risk for most of the usual ocular disorders we reviewed with the exception of age-related macular degeneration. Exposure to chronic hyperglycaemia promotes the development of many eye disorders while acute glucose changes are involved in refractive disorders, diabetic papillopathy and acute cataract.
Diabetes, beyond diabetic retinopathy, increases the risk of numerous eye disorders leading to low vision with implications for daily diabetes management. Even in the absence of clearly demonstrated benefit from glucose control in all eye conditions, achieving good glycaemic control and adherence to diabetes treatment will likely help avoid an additional risk of visual impairment in people with diabetes. In perspective, interesting findings suggesting a preventive effect of metformin use on age-related macular degeneration occurrence justify further studies.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Acute anterior ischemic neuropathy, Age-related macular degeneration, Cataract, Diabetes, Glaucoma, Retinal vascular occlusion
Abbreviations : ACG, AMD, DES, DME, DP, DR, IVI, NAION, OCT, OIS, POAG, pRNFL, RVO, RAO, T1DM, T2DM