Amphotericin B is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent and is the backbone of the treatment for medically important opportunistic fungal pathogens in children. This study aimed to compare the nephrotoxicity associated with L-AmB in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.
Materials and methods
A total of 112 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia patients who received treatment with L-AmB (Ambisome®) at the University of Health Sciences Dr Behcet Uz Children's Hospital over 7 years were included. The incidence of hypokalemia, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate and presence of acute kidney injury was recorded.
The average L-AmB treatment duration was 17.1±15.0 days. Five patients (4.4%) of the patients had grade I acute renal injury according to KDIGO criteria and 16 patients (14.2%) had increased risk for kidney injury according to RIFLE criteria. There were no patients with eGFR decrease above 50% and no renal injury and failure were observed during L-AmB treatment. The rate of patients with hypokalemia in the pre-treatment was 17.9% and the post-L-AmB group was 50.0%. The rate of hypokalemia was higher in the post-treatment group (P=0.0015). Among the 112 patients, only two patients (1.7%) required cessation of L-AmB treatment due to resistant hypokalemia despite supplementation.
Hypokalemia was more common compared to glomerulotoxicity and acute renal injury (according to KDIGO and RIFLE criteria) in pediatric leukemia patients treated with L-AmB. Hypokalemia developed in nearly half of the patients and the study shows the need for randomized controlled trials and strategies for hypokalemia associated with L-AmB treatment.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Liposomal amphotericin B, Children, Malignancies, KDIGO, RIFLE