Assessing growth in craniosynostoses relative to controls contributes to build evidence-based treatment plans.
Descriptive and comprehensive skull growth models are currently available in the literature.
The most advanced skull growth models take suture and surface growth into account.
Craniosynostoses affect 1/2000 births and their incidence is currently increasing. Without surgery, craniosynostosis can lead to neurological issues due to restrained brain growth and social stigma due to abnormal head shapes. Understanding growth patterns is essential to develop surgical planning approaches and predict short- and long-term post-operative results. Here we provide a systematic review of normal and pathological cranial vault growth models.
Material and Methods
The systematic review of the literature identified descriptive and comprehensive skull growth models with the following criteria: full text articles dedicated to the skull vault of children under 2 years of age, without focus on molecular and cellular mechanisms. Models were analysed based on initial geometry, numerical method, age determination method and validation process.
A total of 14 articles including 17 models was reviewed. Four descriptive models were assessed, including 3 models using statistical analyses and 1 based on deformational methods. Thirteen comprehensive models were assessed including 7 finite element models and 6 diffusion models. Results from the current literature showed that successful models combined analyses of cranial vault shape and suture bone formation.
Growth modelling is central when assessing craniofacial architecture in young patients and will be a key factor in the development of future customized treatment strategies. Recurrent technical difficulties were encountered by most authors when generalizing a specific craniosynostosis model to all types of craniosynostoses, when assessing the role of the brain and when attempting to relate the age with different stages of growth.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Pediatrics, Development and growth, Calvaria, Sutures, Craniosynostosis