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Evaluation of Reported Medical Services Provided to Pediatric Viral Bronchiolitis Diagnoses During the COVID-19 Pandemic - 08/04/22

Doi : 10.1016/j.resmer.2022.100909 
Conrad Krawiec 1, , Duane Williams 1, Vonn Walter 2, Neal J. Thomas 1, 2
1 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA, USA 17033-0850 
2 Department of Public Health Sciences, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA 17033-0850 

Corresponding author: Conrad Krawiec, Department of Pediatrics, Penn State Health Children's Hospital, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA 17033-0850, Tel: (717) 531-5337, Fax: (717)-531-8985Department of PediatricsPenn State Health Children's Hospital500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850HersheyPA17033-0850

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STRUCTURED ABSTRACT

Background

Mitigation strategies were implemented during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that slowed the spread of this virus and other respiratory viruses. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on the medical services that children less than 1 year of age with acute bronchiolitis required (emergency department services, hospitalization, critical care services, and mechanical ventilation).

Methods

This was a retrospective observational cohort study utilizing TriNetX ® electronic health record (EHR) data. We included subjects less than 1 year of age with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis. After the query, the study population was divided into two groups [pre-COVID-19 (March 1st, 2019 until February 29th, 2020) and COVID-19 (March 1st, 2020 until February 1th, 2021)]. We analyzed the following data: age, sex, race, diagnostic codes, common terminology procedures (CPT), and antimicrobials administered.

Results

A total of 5063 subjects (n,%) were included [4378 (86.5%) pre-COVID-19 and 685 (13.5%) during the COVID-19 pandemic]. More subjects were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID time frame (4378, 1.8% of all hospitalizations) when compared to the COVID-19 pandemic time frame (685, 0.5%). When diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, the frequency of emergency department services, critical care services, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilationwere similar between the two cohorts.

Conclusions

During the COVID-19 pandemic, less infants were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis but the frequency of emergency department services, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilation, reportedly required was similar. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate the benefits of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on common viruses that require critical care.

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Keywords : Infection, Bronchiolitis/epidemiology, Retrospective Study, COVID-19


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