The optimal treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) remains controversial. Surgery has long been considered as the treatment that yields the best outcomes. Some authors now prefer using less invasive options as the primary treatment. The primary objective of this systematic literature review was to determine if treatments that are less invasive than surgery are also effective in curing the ABC. The secondary objective was to determine the respective role of each treatment in the therapeutic arsenal.
Less invasive treatments can replace surgery as the base treatment for ABC.
Patients and methods
A PubMed® search was carried out for this review. The inclusion criteria were ABC treatment without cyst removal, case series, clinical case reports, reviews, publication in French or English. Excluded were articles that described the results of surgical treatment only, cranial or maxillofacial cysts, secondary ABC, duplicates, no abstract available. Based on the first six items of the “MINOR criteria”, we selected 42 studies. For each selected study, we analyzed the number of cases, clinical response to treatment, radiological healing, recurrence or failure rate, complications and side effects of the treatment.
This review found that less invasive treatments generate results that are at least as good as surgery, often with fewer complications. Thus, in certain cases, these treatments can be recommended as first-line therapy. This category includes selective arterial embolization, sclerotherapy (alcohol, polidocanol) and injection of demineralized bone matrix.
Selective arterial embolization yields good results. While this is a difficult, operator-dependent technique that is not suitable for all ABCs (no identifiable feeding vessel), we recommend it as the primary treatment for spinal ABCs. For ABCs in other locations, sclerotherapy can be used as the primary treatment. However, this treatment becomes inconvenient if the number of injections is too high. Radiation therapy is not a first-line treatment because of its side effects. Bisphosphonates and denosumab can be used when the other treatments are contraindicated.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Aneurysmal bone cyst, Selective arterial embolisation, Sclerotherapy, Denosumab, Bisphosphonates