Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) can, through multiple mechanisms, complicate with hydrocephalus (HCP). It is generally agreed that management strategies in this scenario should focus on endovascular embolizations. Treatment options for non-responders, however, have been only scarcely reported upon.
We present a nine-month-old boy with a mural type VGAM complicated by HCP. Despite endovascular occlusion of the sole feeder, the child exhibited hydrocephalus progression prompting an Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV). This procedure restored a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation otherwise impaired by aqueduct obstruction. Later, a new feeder arose and a second embolization was ultimately needed in order to achieve VGAM regression. Throughout four years of follow up, the child attained all developmental marks.
VGAMs are prone to hydrocephalus development as there is both an underlying venous congestion and a mechanical, obstructive component. Although there is a rationale for addressing both components, the underlying AV shunts and subsequent venous pressure elevations usually determine failure of traditional CSF shunting strategies. It is therefore challenging to manage HCP in patients who failed to improve following endovascular embolizations. For such cases, ETV stands as an elegant minimal invasive alternative with potential to provide a more physiologic drainage route and thus better allow for neurological development.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Endoscopic third ventriculostomy, Hydrovenous disorders, Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, CSF dynamics/circulation