Giant cell tumors (GTC) of bone are benign, locally aggressive tumors generally occurring in young people with a female predominance during reproductive age. Considering their worsening during pregnancy it has been suggested that pregnancy can accelerate GCT progression or favor recurrence but correlation between tumor growth and pregnancy has not yet been clarified. Aim of this study was to clarify clinical characteristics, timing and type of treatment through a literature review on GTCs occurring during pregnancy.
Patients and methods
An electronic search was performed in December 2020 in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Register using the keywords “giant cell tumor” AND “pregnancy” looking for papers reporting cases of giant cell tumors of the bone onset or recurred during pregnancy. The electronic search identified 212 papers; sixteen studies were selected, for a total of 32 cases.
The diagnosis was made during pregnancy in 24 cases and after the partum in 8 cases. 27 cases were new diagnoses while 5 cases were recurrences. Pulmonary metastases were reported in 3 patients. The treatment was performed during the pregnancy in 7 out of 32 cases; in the remaining 27 cases treatment was performed after delivery. The hormone receptor status was reported in 14 patients. Data regarding follow-up was reported for 26 out of 32 patients; three patients had local recurrences that were treated with wide resection and amputation in 2 and 1 case, respectively; at the last follow-up all patients were apparently without any evidence of disease except for three patients who had stable lung metastases.
In case of GCT during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to offer the patients the best treatment in terms of mother and child's health. A correct diagnosis is necessary and not confusing tumor symptoms with ones of pregnancy is mandatory in order not to delay the diagnosis and let the tumor progress. Actually, even though pregnancy would seem to promote GCT growth and aggressiveness, the relationship is not clear. More studies are necessary to clarify this interesting aspect.
Level of Evidence
IV, systematic review.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : GCT, Pregnancy, Estrogen receptors, Progesterone receptors, Delivery