Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare disease characterised by the presence of a fibro-inflammatory tissue typically enveloping the abdominal aorta, the iliac arteries and, in some cases, the nearby structures, such as the ureters and the inferior vena cava. Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and follow-up: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans are used to define the extension of the pathological tissue, whereas fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is the gold standard to establish the degree of its metabolic activity. CP must be distinguished from secondary forms of periaortic infiltration, which include malignant, infectious, and drug-related aetiologies. This review focuses on the clinical aspects of CP and the differential diagnosis with secondary cases, and aims to provide the clinician with a guide through this challenging clinical approach.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Periaortitis, Aortitis, Retroperitoneal fibrosis, IgG4, Hydronephrosis