Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most common type of hearing loss. Causes include degenerative changes in the sensory hair cells, their synapses and/or the cochlear nerve. As human inner ear hair cells have no capacity for regeneration, their destruction is irreversible and leads to permanent hearing loss. SNHL can be genetically inherited or acquired through ageing, exposure to noise or ototoxic drugs. Ototoxicity generally refers to damage to the structures and functions of the inner ear following exposure to specific drugs. Ototoxicity can be multifactorial, causing damage to cochlear hair cells or cells with homeostatic functions that modulate cochlear hair cell function. Clinical strategies to limit ototoxicity include identifying patients at risk, monitoring drug concentrations, performing serial hearing assessments and switching to less ototoxic therapy. This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, using the PubMed® database. The search terms “ototoxicity”, “hearing loss” and “drugs” were combined. We included studies published between September 2013 and June 2023, and focused on medicines and drugs used in hospitals. The review highlighted a number of articles reporting the main drug classes potentially involved: namely, immunosuppressants, antimalarials, vaccines, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. The presumed ototoxic mechanisms were described, together with the therapeutic and preventive options developed over the last ten years.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Drugs, Ototoxicity, Adverse drug reaction, Hearing loss, Deafness, Inner ear, Cochlea, Inner hair cell, Outer hair cell, Reactive oxygen species, Audiogram, Otoacoustic evoked emissions, Auditory brainstem evoked potentials