Drug-induced hyperglycemia and diabetes have negative and potentially serious health consequences but can often be unnoticed.
We reviewed the literature searching Medline database for articles addressing drug-induced hyperglycemia and diabetes up to January 31, 2023. We also selected drugs that could induce hyperglycemia or diabetes according official data from drug information databases Thériaque and Micromedex. For each selected drug or pharmacotherapeutic class, the mechanisms of action potentially involved were investigated. For drugs considered to be at risk of hyperglycemia or diabetes, disproportionality analyses were performed using data from the international pharmacovigilance database VigiBase. In order to detect new pharmacovigilance signals, additional disproportionality analyses were carried out for drug classes with more than 100 cases reported in VigiBase, but not found in the literature or official documents.
The main drug classes found to cause hyperglycemia are glucocorticoids, HMG-coA reductase inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, antipsychotics, fluoroquinolones, antiretrovirals, antineoplastic agents and immunosuppressants. The main mechanisms involved are alterations in insulin secretion and sensitivity, direct cytotoxic effects on pancreatic cells and increases in glucose production. Pharmacovigilance signal were found for a majority of drugs or pharmacological classes identified as being at risk of diabetes or hyperglycemia. We identified new pharmacovigilance signals with drugs not known to be at risk according to the literature or official data: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, sodium oxybate, biphosphonates including alendronic acid, digoxin, sartans, linosipril, diltiazem, verapamil, and darbepoetin alpha. Further studies will be needed to confirm these signals.
The risks of induced hyperglycemia vary from one drug to another, and the underlying mechanisms are multiple and potentially complex. Clinicians need to be vigilant when using at-risk drugs in order to detect and manage these adverse drug reactions. However, it is to emphasize that the benefits of appropriately prescribed treatments most often outweigh their metabolic risks.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Drug-induced hyperglycemia, Drug-induced diabetes, Pharmacovigilance, Adverse drug reaction, Disproportionality analysis