Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting millions of adults worldwide. HF with preserved ejection fraction, i.e. > 50 %, (HFpEF) accounts for more than half of all HF cases, and its incidence and prevalence are increasing with the aging of the population and the growing prevalence of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Diagnosis of HFpEF requires a combination of numerous echocardiographic parameters and also results of natriuretic peptide assays, to which may be added the need for a stress test. HFpEF is characterized by complex, interrelated pathophysiological mechanisms, which must be understood. This complexity probably accounts for the lack of evidence-based medicine compared with HF with reduced EF. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made recently, with a high level of evidence obtained for the SGLT2 inhibitor class on the one hand, and promising data with new drugs targeting more specifically certain mechanisms such as obesity and inflammation on the other.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.