Acute heart failure (AHF) is a clinical complex disease and a worldwide issue due to its inconsistent diagnosis and poor prognosis. The cornerstone of pathophysiology of AHF is systemic venous congestion, which is led by the underlying structural and functional cardiac condition. Systemic venous congestion is a major target for AHF management because it causes symptoms and organs dysfunction, and is associated with poor prognosis. The mainstay of decongestive therapy is diuresis with intravenous loop diuretics combined with other diuretics including thiazides when necessary, and non-invasive ventilation. The presence of unresolved congestion at discharge can lead heart failure related rehospitalization, and careful follow-up is required especially during “vulnerable phase”, several months after discharge. The updated recommendation for management of AHF has been provided by latest guidelines from European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Failure Society of America. Several large studies have currently demonstrated the benefits of guideline-directed oral medical therapies, and trials are ongoing on medication such as selective sodium-glucose transport proteins 2 inhibitors and protocols for congestive therapy. This review aimed to summarize the latest insights in AHF, based primarily on the most recent guidelines and large randomized controlled trials.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Key words : Acute heart failure, Management, Pharmacological treatment