Injection of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution instead of local anaesthetic (LA) solution is an iatrogenic error with serious consequences including medico-legal implications. Such cases have been reported despite recommended precautionary measures. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on such cases and present clinical preventive recommendations. Electronic search was conducted in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Scopus, Lilacs, ScienceDirect, and Crossref databases for articles reporting accidental or mistaken or inadvertent injection of NaOCl instead of LA during dental or endodontic treatment. Articles reporting NaOCl accident due to extrusion or injection of NaOCl beyond root confines were excluded. A total of 11 articles were found and reviewed. Data pertaining to the patient, injected NaOCl, cause, clinical manifestations, management, hospitalization, healing and recovery, and long-term or residual effects were extracted, compiled, and analysed for interpretation and discussion. Injection of NaOCl instead of LA into the soft tissues leads to varying clinical manifestations with unpredictable extent, outcome, and recovery period. The onus lies with the clinician to prevent it. Therefore, a clinician must take all the precautionary measures and confirm the identity of LA and NaOCl solutions before delivering them. The presented clinical recommendations assist clinicians to prevent it, including its potential medico-legal consequences. However, in case of such an unfortunate event, it is crucial to immediately identify and quickly manage it to limit the tissue damage or complications.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.
Keywords : Accidental injection, Dental, Inadvertent injection, Local anaesthetic, Mistaken injection, Sodium hypochlorite