CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes control revascularization after vascular occlusion. T cell activation is mediated by two major costimulatory signalings: the B7/CD28 and the CD40-CD40 ligand pathways. Interestingly, CD28 interactions with the structurally related ligands B7-1 and B7-2 are also required for the generation and homeostasis of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg), whichactively maintain immunological tolerance to self and nonself antigens. We hypothesized that naturally arising Treg modulate the immuno-inflammatory response to ischemic injury, and subsequently vessel growth.
Ischemia was induced by right femoral artery ligation in CD28-deficient mice (n=10 per group). After 21 days of ischemia, CD28 deficiency showed a profound reduction in Treg number and upregulated post-ischemic inflammatory response and neovascularization. Similarly, injection of splenocytes isolated from CD28-/- mice in Rag1-/- mice with hindlimb ischemia increased angiographic score, foot perfusion, and capillary density by 2.2-, 2.3- and 1.1-fold, respectively, compared to PBS-injected Rag1-/- mice. These effects were associated with enhanced accumulation of CD3-positive T cells and Mac-3 positive macrophages in the ischemic leg of Rag1-/- mice treated with CD28-/- splenocytes. Interestingly, cotransfer of Treg with CD28-/- splenocytes in Rag1- /- mice abrogated activation of neovascularization induced by CD28-/- splenocytes. Inflammatory cells accumulation was also decreased in Rag1-/- transplanted with both Treg and CD28-/- splenocytes compared to mice receiving CD28-/- splenocytes only. In contrast, treatment of C57Bl/6 Wild-Type mice with an anti- CD25 antibody (PC61) markedly reduced endogenous Treg levels in blood and spleen. At day 14 of ischemia, inflammatory response and neovascularization were markedly increased in anti-CD25 treated Wild-Type mice compared to untreated mice. These results provide new insights into the immunoregulation of post-ischemic neovascularization.Le texte complet de cet article est disponible en PDF.